"Why do some children inexplicably underachieve despite adequate intelligence?"


For many years The Institute of Neuro Physiological Psychology (INPP Chester) has researched reflexes, education and efficacy of reflex stimulation and inhibition programmes.

Further research into this field includes:

2005 Goddard Blythe SA

INPP Research - Reflex Stimulation & Inhibition Programmes
Releasing educational potential through movement. Child Care in Practice, Volume 11/4: 415 - 432.
Research into the relationship between abnormal reflexes and reading problems, and the efficacy of The INPP Programme for Schools is ongoing in several schools in Northumberland and Tyne and Wear.

2004 Taylor M, Houghton S, Chapman E
Primitive reflexes and Attention Deficit Disorder: developmental origins of classroom dysfunction. International Journal of Special Education (Vol. 19/1)

2003 Kesper G
This paper studies the effects of persisting infantile reflexes on motor behaviour and central processing.

2001 Goddard Blythe SA
This study examined Neuro-Developmental factors in 54 children who had received an independent diagnosis of dyslexia. All participants displayed evidence of abnormal ATNR and TLR, together with other Neuro-Developmental factors.

2001 Bein-Wierzbinski W
Persistent Primitive Reflexes in Elementary School Children. Effects on oculomotor function and visual perception.

1998 British Journal of Occupational Therapy
Goddard Blythe and Hyland researched the reliability of a screening questionnaire to identify children who might have a degree of underlying NDD. Screening for Neurological Dysfunction in the Specific Learning Difficulty Child (10/98).

1994 University of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne
Wilkinson replicated Rider's study and found a link between abnormal primitive reflexes, learning difficulty and underachievement.

1976 University of Purdue
Bender examined the effect of one reflex - the STNR on education - and found it present in 75% of a group of learning disabled children. It was not present in a comparison group of children with no history of learning disabilities. She developed exercises designed to inhibit the STNR and many children improved. The Bender Purdue Reflex Test (Academic Therapy Publications, CA).

1971 University of Kansas
Rider (O.T.) assessed the prevalence of abnormal reflex responses by comparing normal second grade children to a group of learning disabled children. Children with normal reflexes scored consistently higher on achievement tests than those with abnormal reflexes.

1970 University of Kansas
Gustaffson (O.T.) compared the reflex levels of a group of neurologically impaired children with a group of children with no known neurological impairment and found all the children with neurological impairment had abnormal reflexes.